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According to the IGG, Uganda loses approximately Shs10 trillion to corruption every year and the lost funds include money generated from loans.


What you need to know:

  • According to the Bank of Uganda, over the last two years alone (2019-2021), Uganda’s debt increased by 49.5 per cent from Shs47.1trillion in August 2019 to Shs70.4trillion in June 2021.
  • Irrespective of the fact that Uganda ratified the UN Convention against Corruption and established a robust legal, institutional, policy, managerial framework to fight the vice, economic activists say they remain deeply concerned that the incidence and levels of corruption in Uganda have continued to escalate.

Uganda’s growing debt burden and the pace at which the debt is accumulating have now become a matter of concern to some of the stakeholders monitoring public debt levels. According to the Bank of Uganda, over the last two years alone (2019-2021), Uganda’s debt increased by 49.5 per cent from Shs47.1trillion in August 2019 to Shs70.4trillion in June 2021.

As a result, the Uganda Debt Network, Anti-Corruption Coalition Uganda, Action Aid International Uganda and Transparency International Uganda have noted that they are deeply concerned with the state of affairs, describing it as dangerous path to tread.
One of the main worries, according to the civil society organisations monitoring the public debt situation pertains to the low return on investment resulting from the borrowed resources.  

“The productivity of these debt resources however, is low with the World Bank observing in one of their Economic update on Uganda that for every dollar invested in Uganda’s capital infrastructure, only seven-tenth (0.7) of a dollar has been generated which is far below countries that have successfully undergone structural transformation,” said Ms Christine Byiringiro, a policy specialist and an expert on matters public debt. 

She continued: “As an example, every dollar invested in the development of the interstate highway network in the USA between 1954 and 2001, generated six dollars’ worth of economic activity. Therefore, Uganda's public investments are falling short of generating the desired economic return, mainly due to corruption.”

Deep rooted corruption 

Irrespective of the fact that Uganda ratified the UN Convention against Corruption and established a robust legal, institutional, policy, managerial framework to fight the vice, economic activists say they remain deeply concerned that the incidence and levels of corruption in Uganda have continued to escalate.
According to the IGG, the country loses approximately Shs10 trillion to corruption every year and the lost funds include money generated from loans. This, according to Ms Byiringiro has crippled a number of loan funded projects which do not perform satisfactorily. 
The CSOs are of the view that the existing laws and policies have not been fully implemented to aid productivity of debt resources. For example Article 159(3) of the Constitution of Uganda requires that terms and conditions of loans shall be presented before Parliament and shall not come into operation unless they have been approved by a resolution of the MPs. 

“Unfortunately, in some instances loans are acquired by government without the requisite Parliamentary approval with best example being the Lubowa Specialised Hospital,” the CSOs said in a joint statement. 

Further, the statement issued Sunday, indicates that Parliament has also not played its part in scrutinizing loan proposals and agreements thus giving way to loan contracts with bad terms like in the case of Entebbe airport upgrade project.

Analysis which Ministry of Finance agrees with indicates that poor performance of loans is as a result of poor or lack of proper planning prior to acquisition, implying that the government acquires loans first and then works backwards. 

Economic experts argue that there is also little or no consultation and involvement of project beneficiaries, restraining citizens from monitoring government projects. This has increased the level of misuse of resources and corruption. This is in addition to delayed procurements, paving way to delayed commencement of projects, completion, affecting much needed service delivery. 

Call to action…

It seems as if all boils down to the government to do the right thing. And for that, the CSOs would want to see the government strengthen its ability to generate evidence of corruption within and outside the country and prosecute the corrupt, given that the money lost to vice is taxpayers’. 
“We welcome the lifestyle audit campaign. We implore citizens to support the Inspectorate of Government, especially with information on public officers’ assets as one of the ways to check corruption in Uganda,” Mr Marlon Agaba, Head of Programs at Anti-Corruption Coalition Uganda, told journalists on Sunday.

The CSOs also slammed President Museveni for appearing to encourage corruption given his remarks during the commemoration of the Anti-Corruption Day at Kololo ceremonial grounds last week.

Speaking as the Chief Guest, Mr  Museveni cautioned against lifestyle audit which Ms Betti Kamya, the government watchdog, has been mooting since she was appointed the new Inspector General of Government (IGG) in July this year. And as for the Parliament, the message from the CSO is: “Perform your oversight role with utmost care, and scrutinise loan proposals before approval.”  By Ismail Musa Ladu, Daily Monitor

  • Today, I am indeed delighted and privileged to host the 57th Jamhuri Day celebrations here at Uhuru Gardens, the People’s Garden. This is the exact place where the Union Jack of the British colonizer was lowered and our National Flag hoisted on the midnight of December 12, 1963. And as we hoisted our National Flag here at the People’s Garden in Nairobi, a hero by the name of Kisoi Munyao raised the same flag at midnight of Independence Day at the peak of Mount Kenya.

    This being the highest point in our land, we wanted to declare to one and all that Kenya was finally independent. The joy of December 12 is that we celebrate two critical milestones of our independence journey. And I say so because the transfer of power from the British colonizers to our Founding Fathers took place in three steps over a period of  months. The first step was achieved after the May 27th election of 1963.

    This election ushered in our self-rule on June 1, 1963. And with this step, the First Prime Minister of Kenya, Mzee Jomo Kenyatta became the Head of Government. But the Queen of England remained the Head of State. This means that we were free; but not free. Six months later, the second milestone was achieved when we gained independence on December 12, 1963. 

    On this day, we gathered here at the Garden of the People, hoisted our national flag and played our national anthem for the first time. And as we did this, we were reminded that our National Flag is not just a piece of cloth decorated with ink; or a sentimental display of colours without history. Our Flag is a symbol of the national wounds and the scars we bear from the liberation war.


    It is a picture of the battles we fought; those we won and those we lost. And because the ultimate act of every great warrior is to lay down his weapon, the shield and spears on our National Flag symbolize victory. But even with independence, a national flag and a national anthem, the Queen of England continued to serve as Kenya’s Head of State. This meant that we were free; but not free. 

    It took us one full year to get to the third and final milestone of our liberation. This happened on December 12, 1964 when the Queen of England vacated her position as Head of State. And with this act, Kenya transitioned into a full Republic or Jamhuri marking the total liberation of our country. On this memorable day in 1964, we returned to this Garden of the People to launch the Republic of Kenya and inaugurate its First President. And on the same day, the Governor-General, who became the last expatriate occupant of Government House, left Kenya.

    To commemorate this change of guard, the First President planted a Mugumo tree at the exact spot where our flag had been hoisted at midnight of December 12, 1963. That 57-year-old tree stands tall and proud to my right as a symbol of our struggle dating back 100 years ago in the 1920s. This December 12 is therefore a joyous day for Kenya because we mark the 58th Anniversary of our Independence and the 57th Celebration of our becoming a Republic.

    As we mark this historic day, some will tell you that history is meaningless, unnecessary, useless and irrelevant to the concerns of the present. I beg to differ. History provides invaluable lessons to be learnt and gives context to the present. By looking back, we are better able to look forward.

    Learning from the past means we can build on its good, avoid its mistakes and most importantly it is a constant reminder of the ugly. So that even, as we forgive, we should never forget. Fellow Kenyans, Ladies and Gentlemen, Why did our Founding Fathers choose Uhuru Gardens as the place to celebrate Independence Day in 1963 and the republic status in 1964? Why did they want generations to memorize about our history, the untold atrocities visited upon our people and the evil associated with colonial rule?

    The grounds on which we sit here today were also known as the Langata Concentration Camp. During the liberation war, this concentration camp was the most notorious clearing house for our liberation fighters. In fact, it is estimated that up to 10,000 of our gallant and most feared liberators were confined in this camp at some point or another. And most of them did not survive the wrath of the colonizer.

    Langata Camp has been described in the books of history as resembling the Nazi Camps in Germany, both in its psychological warfare and its methods of brutality. In fact, using  ‘quack scientists’, the colonizers argued that devotion to the cause of Mau Mau was a mental illness. And the only way to deal with it was by creating mass detention camps where ‘shock therapy’ and torture would be administered as a cure. And that was part of the logic they used to create the Langata Concentration Camp where we are seated today. 

    By creating this garden as a place of remembrance, our Founding Fathers wanted generations to recall the darkness of our colonial past, but not to be stuck in the pessimism that dark memories can breed. They wanted us to turn darkness into positive energy the way they did it in the concentration camps. Instead of breaking down in the camps, colonial brutality only made them stronger. But there are other reasons why our Founding Fathers brought us to this place of national remembrance.

    Each time we gather here, they wanted us to face our national fears and demons with courage. More so because, no condition is permanent. They wanted us to “…never question in the dark, decisions we made in the light”. Mainly because the long walk to freedom was a walk of faith. Most of our liberators had no idea whether or when freedom would come. In fact, they confessed in their memoires that many times they had doubt that their cause would ever see the light of the day. And although their walk to freedom was long and hard, the only thing that sustained them was the burning conviction of the rightness of their cause.

    They were troubled on every side, but not distressed. They were perplexed, but did not despair. Fellow Kenyans, Ladies and Gentlemen, Whenever we congregate at this place of remembrance, we are called to renew the Soul of the Nation. We are called to appreciate the pain felt and sacrifices made, by those who went before us. The fallen soldiers and heroes buried in unmarked graves in prisons and camps all over the country. That is why the project under construction before you at this site was initiated.

    President Uhuru Kenyatta salutes
    President Uhuru Kenyatta salutes as he witnesses a fly-past by Kenya Airforce (KAF) aircraft and a free fall by Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) Paratroopers. STATE HOUSE

    Apart from being a place of remembrance and healing, this place will be an arena where the past, the present and the future will converge. When Kenyans walk through the Heroes Boulevard, their spirits will be edified by the sacrifices our liberators made. And at the end of this boulevard, there will be the tomb of the unknown warrior.

    A warrior whose name we do not know, although he died in battle for our country. A warrior whose mother let him go, and both mother and son sacrificed so that we can be free. Once completed, this place of history will rekindle memories of our armed struggle, but also the good, the bad and the ugly of our history.

    At the Hall of Legends, it will bring alive our legendary ancestors including Mzee Jomo Kenyatta, Mekatilili wa Menza, Koitalel arap Samoei, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga and Nabongo Mumia among others. At the Tunnel of Martys, we will have a solemn memorial to each and every Kenyan who lost their lives in the many watershed moments. These will range from the First to Second World War all the way to the victims of the post-election violence of 2008. 

    In the Rope Gallery of this museum, a named rope will be dedicated to every one of the one thousand and ninety (1090) heroic souls that were hanged during the colonial era. And at the Moments of Darkness Gallery, we shall display the histories of our lowest moments, the moments that we regret but are part of our history. But not all galleries display sad news.

    The Hall of Innovation in this museum will celebrate the brilliant and game-changing ideas produced by Kenyans. This Hall will speak to the coming future and how our past has guided it. The Hall that is just behind me, marked by a spear pointing up, characterizes our latest exploits, our moments of great hope and national pride, and our bold path into the future. This place will be a book of history and illumination of the future, weaved in hope, written in pictures, sculptures and historical artifacts.

    And although the place of remembrance is a place of national pain, it will also be an altar for historical forgiveness. As Kenyans walk through the galleries of heroes and legends, they must forgive those who trespassed against us. However, they must also heed the call from our Founding Father when he said: “We will Forgive them; but we will NEVER Forget” We must forgive our transgressors; but we must never forget their name.

    Fellow Kenyans, Ladies and Gentlemen, Finally, our Founding Fathers brought us to this Garden of remembrance to teach us that nation-building is not a sprint; it is a relay. No single person or group of persons can make this undertaking alone. Liberation was achieved because it was a product of teamwork. And it must be recorded that the Founding Fathers were not a team because they worked together.

    They were a team because they reinforced each other and had deep respect, and trust for one another. They taught us that nation-building is like building a house. This endeavor is indeed a product of teamwork, not individualism. They built a firm foundation for a prosperous Kenya. Others amongst them built the walls and others roofed the house.

    Everyone had a role to play. And no role was greater than the other.  The same is today as it was then. We are building a house called Kenya and there is no place for one-manism in this project. It is the collective work of every able-bodied Kenyan. And yes, we will disagree sometimes, but in our disagreements, we must remain respectful. In fact, respectful disagreements are what lead to reconciliation. More so because when we disagree, it is a sign that we are making progress.

    The making of a nation and the building of a house are also living processes. They cannot be static; they must be dynamic. Errors are made sometimes and renovations must correct them after the house is completed. In December 1991, we discovered that the one-party system was a design error in our nationhood. And the advancement of the Republic had outlived its usefulness. We made renovations and changed the system.

    In 2007, we ran into another architectural defect in our nation building project. We discovered that the politics of exclusion in which the ‘winner takes it all’ was not good for our country. We were bold enough to change the Constitution and expand the executive in order to accommodate the excluded. And when the former Prime Minister, Rt. Hon. Raila Odinga and I shook hands on March 8th, 2018, it was because we saw a crack on the wall of our nation.

    We had run two elections that costed the country Ksh1 trillion in business loses and we were staring at a nation divided right in the middle. Because we had disagreed respectfully, we knew that this was a mark of progress. It was difficult, but the necessity, the reason and the recognition that we as Kenyans needed each other, nation before self, as our forefathers had taught us to come together, reinforced our resolve.

    Therefore, the need to come together and mend the crack on the wall of our nation necessitated the first amendment to our Constitution. And although it encountered some legal obstacles, I can only say that BBI is just a dream deferred. One day, someday, it will happen, because the country cannot survive ethnic majoritarianism and exclusion just as it cannot survive unfair and skewed representation. This is a design defect that we must fix.

    President Uhuru Kenyatta greets first lady Margaret Kenyatta during the Jamhuri Day Celebrations at Uhuru Gardens on December 12
    President Uhuru Kenyatta greets first lady Margaret Kenyatta during the Jamhuri Day Celebrations at Uhuru Gardens on December 12 STATE HOUSE

    Fellow Kenyans, Ladies and Gentlemen, This Garden of the People, therefore, is not just a place of remembrance. It was gifted to us as a place where generations shall tell stories of where we have come from, where we are and where we are going. It is an arena of truth narrated before God; verified by history and reinforced by the acts of our Founding Fathers. And if it is a convergence point between our past and our present, it must also guide our future.

    Allow me now to conclude with a thought about the future. If the Asian Tigers were at the same level of development as Kenya in 1963 and Kenya actually lent South Korea some money to implement its development plan in 1963, the question is what happened? Why were we unable to develop as fast as they did?

    This future did not happen because we failed to plan for it. This future evaded us because we failed to imagine it. And I say so because imagination is more powerful than knowledge. For the past to have an impact on our future, we must constantly imagine and re-imagine the future.

    As we envision the future, we are reminded that in eight years, our Economic Blue Print, that is, the Kenya Vision 2030 will have run its course. By then, Kenya will be home to a projected 63 million citizens; and as Kenya turns 100 in 2063, we will be home to 100 million citizens.

    For us to secure the elusive shared prosperity and inter-generational equity; we must be bold in our imagination of Kenya at 100. But, our imagination cannot follow the popular path; it must follow the bold path. Indeed, Vision 2063 must be a bold imagination of what Kenya will be at 100 years.

    The solemn duty of framing of how this vision looks like is the task of our generation. As our children walk through the Boulevard of Heroes in this park and play in the Pavilion of Reflection, what account of ourselves will we have left in this unedited place of history? It must be written in this unedited book of history that, we chose the bold path over the popular path. The Lion is “…not the strongest animal in the Savannah.

    Neither is it the biggest. Neither is it the most shrewd. But, it is the boldest”. And this attitude of boldness is what makes the lion, the King of the Jungle. Indeed, this is the reason it is said that “…an army of sheep led by a lion can defeat an army of lions led by a sheep.”

    The future of Kenya, inspired by the past and the present, must be about brave imagination. This is why I congratulate the 19th Infantry Battalion of the Kenya Army, whom I have coloured today. We must celebrate our Defence Forces because when they go to war in defense of our borders, they know too well that they will either return hoisting our national flag; or return wrapped in our national flag.

    This takes boldness and dedication. Fellow Kenyans, Ladies and Gentlemen, Now I will end my address by keeping a promise I made. On the 20th October, 2021, I directed the Ministry of Energy to fast-track the implementation of the recommendations of the Presidential Taskforce on Power Purchase Agreements. I am pleased to note that the pathway to reduce the cost of electricity by over 30% is on course.

    In honour of this pledge to the nation, and in response to the concerns over the high cost of electricity raised by both individual consumers and enterprises, I am pleased to announce to the nation that the reduction of the cost of electricity will be implemented in two tranches of 15% each; with the first 15% achieved through initial actions focusing on system and commercial losses, to be reflected in the December bills, and a further 15% reduction, in the first quarter of 2022.

    In realizing the second tranche of the reduction in power bills, I note that the Ministry of Energy has initiated engagements with Independent Power Producers aimed at renegotiation of power purchase agreements; so as to give better value for money for consumers. I urge the power producers to demonstrate goodwill as we seek to make our energy sector a greater catalyst of our national development.

    As we move to the New Year, 2022, I leave you with the words of our Founding President as he wished our new Republic a Merry Christmas 57 years ago. He urged our good men and women to be of service to their fellow countrymen. His New Year message was this: “…let everyone who is educated, teach others to read and write. Let every man who is healthy help a man who is sick.

    Let every man who has work find some prospect for a man that is poor and not employed. Let service be our inspiration for the future…”. And with this message my beloved Countrymen, I wish you a Merry Christmas and a Prosperous New Year to you all. GOD BLESS YOU. GOD BLESS THE REPUBLC OF KENYA.


A man has been shot dead by armed police after reports that “three loud bangs” were heard next to Kensington Palace.

Visitors to the palace fled the scene as gunshots rang out at the junction of Kensington Road and Palace Gate at 3.20pm on Saturday.

Police later revealed they were called to reports of an armed robber entering a bank and bookmaker in nearby Marloes Road at 3pm.

A spokesman said: “The man was then seen to get into a vehicle and leave the area.

“At 3.19pm, armed officers stopped a vehicle at the junction of Kensington Road and Palace Gate, SW7. Shots were fired and a man sustained gunshot wounds.

“The incident is not being treated as terrorism.”

One witness said they saw a person getting chest compressions from paramedics.


Katie Roberton, 40, who was with her son visiting the palace said she heard three bangs ring out.

She told The Standard: “We heard these shots and I said to my boy ‘My god that sounds like gunshots’. It was not ‘bang, bang, bang’ but slower, all over in seven seconds.

“I stopped in my tracks and so did another woman ahead of me, then we saw people running.

“It was really scary I was with my son, so I had to stay calm for him. We walked to the side of the palace where the cars go in.

“The police there said they had no idea what going on but it could be something to do with the embassies.

“We just got out of there as soon as we can.”

Police remain at the scene guarding a forensics tent in the road. 

A manager at a spa on Kensington Road, told the Standard: “We were all inside the hotel, it was busy we had all the guests in the bar, the restaurant. “Suddenly there were loads of police cars everywhere.

“They haven’t disclosed very much.

“Police came in to see if we are ok and told us to keep our guests away from the windows wherever possible. All our windows are open at the back so we were told to avoid people going out of the main entrance.

“Our guests aren’t allowed out still. We have another entrance and everyone is trying to get on normally.”

Another passerby said: “I was walking past and saw the area cordoned off with lots of police cars, vans and an ambulance.

“People were rumouring that someone got shot by the police. But I didn’t hear anything.

“They had a stretcher already out. I couldn’t take any pictures because I was holding shopping bags.”

Author and journalist Millie Kerr, 40, who lives in the area in an Uber when got stuck in traffic near the Palace Gate.

She told MyLondon: “I wasn’t there when the incident took place, but I got out of my Uber and started walking. I headed through the park and saw what I’m 95 per cent sure was paramedics giving chest compressions to at least one person.

“It was next to a car but I don’t think it looked like a car crash had happened. The helicopter has just left the area in the last five minutes.”

A Met spokesman added that despite the “best efforts of the emergency services” the man was pronounced dead at 4.08pm.

He said: “Efforts are under way to confirm the man’s identity and to inform his next of kin.

“The Met’s Directorate of Professional Standards has been informed and the incident has been referred to the Independent Office for Police Conduct.

“A number of road closures are in place in the local area and are likely to remain in place for some time. The public are advised to avoid the area.

“The incident is not being treated as terrorism.”  By Barney Davies, Evening Standard/Yahoo News


The Uhuru Gardens Museum will be accessible to the public free of charge from April next year, President Uhuru Kenyatta announced Sunday, revealing that the museum construction was inspired by Opposition chief Raila Odinga.

The head of state revealed that the construction of the Museum that hosted the 2021 Jamhuri Day celebrations was a concept guided by Odinga.

"I want to thank Odinga who has been giving me advice since I started to focus on the Uhuru Gardens project. We will be back here come April next year to open the museum and the stadium officially so that children and Kenyans can visit this place without any charge," said Kenyatta when he officiated Jamhuri Day celebrations at the gardens. 

Odinga revealed that Uhuru Gardens grounds was grabbed but the government has managed to restore the lover that has over the years been used to host corporate events, weddings and filmmaking.

"This land had been grabbed but those land grabbers who don't see any open space and stop grabbing them but you managed to retrieve it back for the benefit of our people," said Odinga.

The ODM leader hinted that the Weston Hotels grounds owned by Deputy President William Ruto was part of Uhuru gardens as it hosts torture chambers preserved by the Museum of Kenya.

Odinga rekindled historical moments saying that the Uhuru Gardens was a symbolic one as it was commonly known as Open grounds, started by the forefathers in the Legislative Council of Kenya (LEGCO).

"Freedom fighters were tortured here. Your excellency what you have done is the best. You have said here you want history unedited so that people will come here to know who Harry Thuku and many of our Kenyans patriots were," said Odinga. 

Kenyatta stated that the marking of the 58th Jamhuri Day celebrations in Uhuru Gardens was historical as it was the place where the forefathers led by Mzee Jomo Kenyatta hoisted the independence flag. 

Located along Langata Road, the garden has three monuments, the Fig Tree or Mugumo Tree, the 20th Anniversary Monument and the 25th Anniversary Monument. A Mugumo tree, sacred to a number of groups, was planted by President Jomo Kenyatta.

Other monuments comprise the independence commemorative monument, built in 1973, a twenty-four-meter-high column, supporting a pair of clasped hands and a dove of peace.

It celebrates the declaration of independence at midnight, 12 December 1963 and the inauguration of Kenya's first president, Jomo Kenyatta and a statue of soldiers raising the Kenyan flag and a fountain celebrating "Twenty-Five years of Uhuru - peace, love and unity monument". 

It was declared a national monument in 1966, three years after the Kenyan flag was hoisted there on Independence Day, December 12, 1963.

"This place will be a remembrance of the great and good things we have been able to implement and the bad we have gone through that we have to learn from as a nation," said Kenyatta.

In March, a Chinese contractor and military were given the mandate to be among contractors on site working on roads, a government museum, shopping complex, business center, a hotel and convention center.

In the government museum, a monument or heroes' corner will bear the names of personalities, including former presidents and heroes.

Sources claim that the Jomo Kenyatta Mausoleum located in Parliament building will be moved to the new Uhuru Gardens site.

Officials from the National Museums of Kenya have been helping government agencies move key artefacts to the new site. By irene Mwangi, Capital News

December 6, 2021. Ethiopian rebel group, Tigray People’s Liberation Front, is facing new accusations of summary executions of civilians.

Solan Kolli| AFP

Ethiopian rebel group, Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), is facing new accusations of summary executions of civilians in what could add a new toll of atrocities to the conflict in the country. 

A detailed report released by rights lobby, Human Rights Watch, on Friday has revealed that the TPLF carried out numerous civilian executions during the past battles in the Tigray and Amhara regions.

“Tigrayan forces summarily executed dozens of civilians in two towns they controlled in Ethiopia’s northern Amhara region between August 31 and September 9, 2021.

“These killings highlight the urgent need for the United Nations Human Rights Council to establish an international investigative mechanism into abuses by all warring parties in the expanded Tigray conflict,” said the Human Rights Watch (HRW).

Residents in affected areas told the organisation that TPLF forces who entered the village called Chenna, for example, in late August executed 26 civilians in fifteen separate incidents, before withdrawing on September 4.

Retaliatory attacks

“In the town of Kobo on September 9, Tigrayan forces summarily executed a total of 23 people in four separate incidents, witnesses said. The killings were in apparent retaliation for attacks by farmers on advancing Tigrayan forces earlier that day” HRW added.

Lama Fakih, Human Rights Watch Crisis and Conflict Director revealed that TPLF forces showed brutal disregard for human life and the laws of war by executing people in their custody.

“These killings and other atrocities by all sides to the conflict underscore the need for an independent international inquiry into alleged war crimes in Ethiopia’s Tigray and Amhara regions” said Lama.

Evidences from relatives  

In September and October, Human Rights Watch said it remotely interviewed 36 people, including witnesses to killings, victims’ relatives and neighbours, religious figures, and doctors about fighting and abuses in around Chenna Teklehaimanot village and Kobo Town in Amhara.

“Nineteen people described seeing Tigrayan fighters in Chenna and Kobo summarily executing a total of 49 people who they said were civilians, providing 44 names. The organization also obtained three lists of civilians who had allegedly been killed in Chenna between August 31 and September 4.

“Taken together, the lists contain 74 names, 30 of which witnesses and relatives of those killed also mentioned to Human Rights Watch. In addition to summary executions, civilians may also have been killed during the fighting from crossfire or heavy weapons. Human Rights Watch was not able to determine how many were killed in this way” HRW cited.

A 70-year-old man said that two Tigrayan fighters killed his son and nephew, aged 23 and 24 respectively in Chenna's Agosh-Mado village on September 2.

“At about midday two Tigrayan fighters came to my compound …They asked [for] our identity cards and accused us of being members of the local defense forces. Then they tied my son and nephew’s hands behind their backs and took them out through the gate of my compound and shot them dead there. Then they turned to me, and I begged them not to kill me and they left” said the elderly man who chose to remain anonymous” the man chose privacy narrated. 

Human shielding

Other witnesses also said that TPLF forces put civilians at grave risk by holding them in residential compounds and shooting from those compounds at Ethiopian troops positioned on nearby hills, drawing return fire. Such actions may amount to “human shielding,” a war crime.

HRW added that four residents described the summary execution of 23 people, including farmers returning to Kobo, in four incidents in the town.

“As these forces searched for weapons in at least two villages, farmers there attacked the Tigrayan forces and fighting ensued. When Tigrayan forces returned to Kobo shortly after midday, they attacked farmers working in the fields between the villages and Kobo” the rights group added.

The TPLF did not immediately respond to the claims and HRW says it sent an advance copy but got no comment. By David Mayen, Daily Nation

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